Infusion set D serves as a passageway of fluid being delivered to the patient. It is mainly made up of flexible PVC tubing. Some IV parts are attached to the tube, each performing a distinct but very much-needed function.
The transfer of the intravenous (IV) fluid is facilitated by gravitational force. Thus, during the infusion, the container is put high above the patient. The distal end of the IV set is equipped with a plastic spike that pierces the rubber plug of the IV container. The proximal end is provided with a hypodermic needle that pierces the vein of the patient.
IV parts and functions
To connect the entire infusion set to the container of the IV fluid, the medical staff should prick the rubber plug with the plastic spike and immerse the tip in the IV fluid. In effect, the fluid could now enter the spike tip and reach its way into the drip chamber.
To maintain the clean condition of the spike when not used, the medical staff should cover it with a cap. The cleanliness condition of the plastic spike must be maintained at all times because, as mentioned in the preceding, it enters the container of the IV fluid and touches the IV fluid itself. The protector must ensure that no debris and other unnecessary substances have attached themselves to the plastic spike.
The air vent allows air to enter the container of the IV fluid. Going over the surface of the fluid, the air subsequently exerts downward pressure to hasten the flow. The air vent is precisely located at the inferior portion of the plastic spike.
The plastic spike has a total length of 54 mm, and it is made up of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The ABS provides favorable mechanical properties to the structure, such as more impact resistance, toughness, and rigidity than other commonly used polymers. However, this part needs to be rigid and tough because it has to prick the rubber plug of the IV container, as mentioned in the preceding.
This is the plastic and compressible chamber that is located below the base of the spike. When the fluid enters the tubing, it is collected first in the drip chamber, and it is here where the flow rate is counted and where to find out if the fluid is flowing.
Our existing infusion set D has a drip chamber with a length of 48 mm. It is made up of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a synthetic plastic polymer. Added with plasticizers, the PVC is made flexible and capable of being compressed when needed, as in reducing the amount of fluid that has entered the drip chamber.
The solution filter is the most inferior part of the drip chamber when the fluid being infused is suspended. It removes particulates, debris, or pathogenic microorganisms that have admixed with the IV fluid, ensuring that they do not enter the patient’s circulatory system.
The roller moves along the plastic tubing, and it is located between the drip chamber and the Y injection site. Its primary function is to ensure that the prescribed flow rate of the IV fluid is followed.
With our existing product, the roller regulator has a length of 55 mm for a tube with a 4.0 mm diameter. It is made up of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). This compound provides the roller clamps with more appropriate mechanical properties, such as impact resistance, toughness, and rigidity, compared with other common polymers.
Y injection site
The injection site is situated before the rotating Luer lock connector. It is here where drugs and other medications may be administered while the infusion is going on.
The plastic part is made up of PVC or ABS. The injection part is made up of latex or latex-free material. It depends on the patient’s needs.
Rotating Luer lock connector
This part is almost at the end of the tubing. It holds and practically connects the hypodermic needle to the tubing.
The Luer lock connector provides some flexibility in managing the hypodermic needle. If there is a need to change or replace the needle, we can detach it from the Luer lock connector. If not, the lock ensures that the needle will not be dislodged unnecessarily. The Luer lock connector has a length of 35 mm, and it is made up of ABS.
The hypodermic needle is the last part of the tubing. Aside from piercing the vein of the patient, it connects the patient to the whole infusion set.
In addition, in considerable measure, the hypodermic needle also controls the flow rate of the IV fluid. Even if you set the roller regulator to the slightest pressure on the tubing, the flow rate will still be slower if the needle has a narrow diameter. Use a needle with a wider diameter, and then you can increase the flow rate. This shows how vital the gauge of the needle is.
In our current product, the hypodermic needle has a gauge of 21G (0.8 x 38 mm). It comprises polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, and stainless steel. The PP material is used for the hub of the stainless needle. PP material has high fatigue resistance, so the hub has low breakages.
The tubing is the central part of the infusion set. Aside from serving as the principal route of the fluid being infused, it serves as the attachment point of all the other IV parts.
It has a length of 150 cm and is made of flexible PVC. Thus, it can be compressed when needed, as in removing some air bubbles along the tube.